To change normality, all the proportion analysis was in fact switched prior to analyses
A standard, cumulative index out of cross-physical fitness try calculated for each mixture of maternal forest and you can pollen donor, according to mature good fresh fruit put, seeds germination, and survivorship and you will development of sites de rencontres gratuites en ligne pour cÃ©libataires adultes seedlings. Per types, mixed-model research off difference was used to assess the consequences out-of crossing treatment (fixed impression; having maternal tree integrated once the an arbitrary effect) on portion of hands-pollinated vegetation mode mature fruit, pricing out of seed germination and seedling survivorship, seedling dimensions at step one year, and you may cumulative exercise. Multiple designs were examined having fun with ANOVA: (a) along with all the service, (b) excluding unbalanced service, permitting analysis away from interaction conditions, (c) without selfing procedures (while the maternal trees had been mostly otherwise completely mind-incompatible), and you may (d) collection the within-Sinharaja outcrossing services to check on the end result out-of contained in this- against. between-tree crossing. The end result away from crossing point on each parameter was subsequent checked having fun with linear or quadratic regression investigation, with regards to the model of the relationship. Lastly, for each maternal tree, the effects out-of nearest-next-door neighbor and you can enough time-point mating was estimated courtesy indices off biparental inbreeding depression and you can outbreeding depression, correspondingly, considering cumulative fitness beliefs.
Fruit abortion was heavy for all trees, resulting in low fruit set (range across treatments: 2.0–9.7%; Fig. 2a). The timing of abortion was not discernable across treatments. Self-compatibility was low, but variable, across maternal trees (Fig. 2a). Flowers used for tests of apomixis (N = 360) and autogamy (N = 582) failed to set fruit. All analyses of variance in fruit set revealed a highly significant treatment effect and significant maternal tree effect, but no significant interaction between treatment and maternal tree (Tables 2A and 3A). For all three trees, the percentage of experimental flowers setting mature fruit showed a consistent increase with crossing distance, followed by a severe decline in fruit set with the distant between-forest treatment (Fig. 2a). The relationship between crossing distance and fruit set was nearly identical for the three maternal trees and significant with or without the self-pollinated treatment included in the model (quadratic regression model: arcsine square-root [fruit set] = crossing distance [km] + crossing distance 2 ; results without self-pollinated treatment: Fdos,57 = 8.25, P < 0.0007, R 2 = 0.47). Peak mean fruit set occurred at a crossing distance of 1–2 km (distant within-forest treatment) and was 1.7–4.7 times greater than mean fruit set rates for other hand-pollination treatments, averaged across maternal trees. Mean fruit set rate for the distant within-forest treatment was significantly greater than those for all treatments except distant-neighbor and open-pollinated, but consistently exceeded fruit set of open-pollinated flowers (Fig. 2a).
Fruit set was also low for Sh. cordifolia (range across treatments: 0–5.3%; Fig. 2b). Again, the timing of fruit abortion was not discernable among treatments. Selfed and distant between-forest treatments resulted in 0% and <1% fruit set, respectively. Fruit set from the intermediate-distance cross-pollinations varied across maternal trees, but with one exception (nearest-neighbor treatment at Tree number 1) indicated optimal fruit set at an outcrossing range of ?2 km (distant neighbor treatment; Fig. 2b). All analyses of variance in fruit set revealed a highly significant treatment effect, but no maternal tree effect (Tables 2B and 3B). The relationship between crossing distance and fruit set was significant only when the selfed treatment was excluded (quadratic regression model: arcsin square root [fruit set] = crossing distance [km] + crossing distance 2 ; Fdos,57 = 5.71, P < 0.006, R 2 = 0.41). At each maternal tree, fruit set rate for open-pollinated flowers was greater than that for all hand-cross treatments, suggesting that some aspect of the hand-pollination procedure (e.g., flower handling, bagging) caused reduced fruit set in Sh. cordifolia.